The citadel of Tophane is the oldest area in the city of Bursa and part of its UNESCO World Heritage listing. It sits on a hill above the historic old town, behind the remnants of the old Byzantine walls of the city. Bursa, which was once the capital of the Ottoman Empire, was known as Proussa (Προύσσα) during ancient Greek and Byzantine times. The Sultanat Kapısı seen below was the main gate on the walls. Click here for a virtual tour of the gate.
There are two ways to walk up to Tophane. One is to walk up a stairway along the front of the citadel. The other is to walk up a street that connects with the main road. See the map below for more details.
The most important structures in Tophane are the tombs of the founder of the Ottoman Empire, Osman Gazi (1258-1326), and his son, Orhan Gazi (1281-1361). They’re entombed in buildings opposite each other.
The Osman Gazi Türbesi holds Osman Gazi (Osman I) and many of his children. Click here for a virtual tour.
Near the tombs there’s a small park with cafés, trees, and excellent views of the entire city of Bursa.
Also at Tophane, you’ll find a street lined with colorful old Ottoman buildings. Many have been converted into restaurants and shops. The Şahadet Camii, a mosque built in 1365, is one of the more prominent buildings.
Following the road downhill away from the city center and towards the Muradiye complex is the old tobacco factory. A local man told me it has been restored, but I’m not sure what the purpose of the building is today. There are large photos of old Bursa on the walls in front of the factory.